We assessed antibody persistence following booster vaccination with a Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV; IMOJEV) in JE-CV–primed children. In an open phase 3 trial, 349 children in the Philippines, who received JE-CV 2 years previously, received a booster dose. JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed (50% plaque reduction neutralization test) annually for up to 5 years after booster vaccination. Seroprotection rates (percentage of children with titers ≥10 [1/dil]) and geometric mean titers (GMTs) were, respectively, 98.2% and 161 after 5 years. JE-CV booster induced long-lasting anamnestic immune response in JE-CV–primed children, with high seroprotection rates and GMTs over the accepted threshold for serological protection (10 [1/dil]).