Clerson P1Graesslin O2Gater A3Taylor F4Filonenko A5Schellschmidt I5Rosen K6.




The objective of this study was to modify the EVAPIL, a questionnaire designed to assess user-reported tolerability of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) in cross-sectional studies, to make it appropriate for assessing the tolerability of intrauterine systems (IUSs), subdermal implants, and COCs in longitudinal studies.


Development of the EVAPIL-Revised (EVAPIL-R) was informed by a targeted literature review, qualitative interviews with IUS-prescribing gynecologists (n = 5), and IUS and implant users in the United States, Germany, and France (n = 36).


Evidence generated supports the content validity of the EVAPIL-R for assessing user-reported tolerability of COCs, IUSs, and implants. Modifications to improve the relevance and usability of the questionnaire in longitudinal studies included specification of a defined recall period, addition of separate assessments of frequency and intensity (where relevant), and inclusion of additional items measuring concepts of importance to IUS and implant users (eg, vaginal discharge).


The EVAPIL-R is a valuable tool for use in research and clinical practice to identify tolerability concerns in hormonal contraceptive users. Future research will evaluate the psychometric validity and responsiveness of the EVAPIL-R. Understanding of user-reported tolerability of contraceptive methods is critical for facilitating patient adherence and potentially reducing the number of unintended pregnancies. The EVAPIL-R may be used to facilitate “women-centered” research and contraceptive counseling and provision.


adverse events; intrauterine systems; patient-reported outcomes; subdermal implants

Suscribe to our newsletter